Inspiring people and their works

Nassim Nicholas Taleb (author, scholar, statistician, trader, philosopher, risk manager)
Books: The Black SwanAntifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder

Bret Victor (engineer, designer, inventor, dreamer):
Talks: Inventing on PrincipleThe Future of Programming
Essay: Learnable Programming

Salvatore Sanfilippo (programmer, I mean rock-star programmer):
Software: redis (source code)